This academic paper takes the reader through the importance of transdisciplinary research for transformative ocean governance, and outlines the difference between Mode 1 and Mode 2 in transdisciplinarity. Mode 1 refers to research that ‘have a predominantly scientific basis’, whilst Mode 2 refers to research that ‘focus on participation and multi-knowledge systems’, therefore aligning more with what is above referred to as strong transdisciplinarity. Challenges of transdisciplinary research include a clear definition and approaches and tools to measure and assess the ‘success’ or value of specific methods and projects. The authors find that transdisciplinary research is often quite obtuse, and argue that a specific promotion and design of Mode 2 is useful for researchers wanting to undertake transdisciplinarity.
The paper presented here emphasizes the significance of transdisciplinary research in transformative ocean governance, distinguishing between Mode 1 (scientific basis) and Mode 2 (inclusive systems).